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NATIONAL SECURITY CONCEPT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Approved by Presidential Decree No. 24 of 10 January 2000


The National Security Concept of the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as the “Concept”) is a system of views on how to secure the individual, society and the state against external and internal threats in every sphere of national life. It articulates the major thrusts of the Russian Federation’s foreign policy.

By Russian Federation national security is meant the security of its multinational people as the bearer of sovereignty and as the only source of power in the Russian Federation.

I. Russia in the world community

The world situation is characterized by a system of international relations undergoing dynamic transformation. Following the end of the bipolar confrontation era, two mutually exclusive tendencies came to prevail.

The first of these tendencies manifests itself in the strengthened economic and political positions of a significant number of states and of their integrative associations and in improved mechanisms for multilateral governance of international processes. Economic, political, science and technological, environmental and information factors are playing an ever-increasing role. Russia will help shape the ideology behind the rise of a multipolar world on this basis.

The second tendency manifests itself in attempts to create an international relations structure based on domination by developed Western countries in the international community, under US leadership and designed for unilateral solutions (primarily by the use of military force) to key issues in world politics in circumvention of the fundamental rules of international law.

The formation of international relations is accompanied by competition and by the striving of a number of states to increase their influence on global politics, including by creating weapons of mass destruction. The significance of the military and security aspects of international relations continues to remain substantial.

Russia is one of the world’s major countries, with a centuries-old history and rich cultural traditions. Despite the complicated international situation and difficulties of a domestic nature, Russia objectively continues to play an important role in global processes by virtue of its great economic, science- technological and military potential and its unique strategic location on the Eurasian continent.

There are prospects for the Russian Federation's broader integration into the world economy and for expanded cooperation with international economic and financial institutions. Objectively, the commonality of interests between Russia and other states persists with regard to many international security problems, particularly opposing the proliferation of mass destruction weapons, settling and preventing regional conflicts, fighting international terrorism and the drug business, and resolving acute ecological problems of a global nature, including nuclear and radiation safety.

At the same time, a number of states are stepping up efforts to weaken Russia politically, economically, militarily and in other ways. Attempts to ignore Russia's interests when resolving major issues in international relations, including conflict situations, are capable of undermining international security and stability and of inhibiting the positive changes occurring in international relations.

In many countries, including the Russian Federation, the acuteness of the problem of terrorism, having a transnational character and threatening world stability, has sharply increased, which calls for the unification of efforts by the entire international community, increased effectiveness of existing forms and methods of countering this threat, and urgent action to neutralize it.

II. Russia’s national interests

Russia's national interests are a totality of balanced interests of the individual, society and the state in economic; domestic political, social, international, informational, military, border, environmental and other fields. They are long-term and define the principal goals and strategic and current objectives of the state’s domestic and foreign policy. The national interests are secured by institutions of state authority, which, inter alia, perform their functions in concert with public organizations operating under the Russian Federation Constitution and laws.

The interests of the individual lie in exercise of constitutional rights and freedoms and in provision of personal security; in an improved quality and standard of living; and in physical, spiritual and intellectual development as a person and citizen.

The interests of society lie in strengthening democracy; in creating a rule-of-law, social state; in achieving and maintaining public harmony, and in the spiritual renewal of Russia.

The interests of the state lie in the inviolability of the constitutional system and of Russia's sovereignty and territorial integrity; in political, economic and social stability; in unconditional assurance of lawfulness and maintenance of law and order; and in the promotion of equal and mutually advantageous international cooperation.

Russia's national interests may only be realized based on sustainable economic development. Therefore Russia's national interests in this sphere are of key importance.

Russia's national interests in the domestic political sphere lie in stability of the constitutional system and the institutions of state authority; in ensuring civil peace and national harmony, territorial integrity, the unity of the legal space, and law and order; in completing the formation of a democratic society; and in neutralizing the causes and conducive conditions for political and religious extremism and ethno-separatism, along with their consequences – social, interethnic and religious conflicts, and terrorism.

Russia's national interests in the social sphere lie in assurance of a high standard of living for its people.

The national interests in the spiritual sphere lie in preservation and strengthening of society's moral values, traditions of patriotism and humanism, and the cultural and scientific potential of the country.

Russia's national interests in the international sphere lie in upholding its sovereignty and strengthening its positions as a great power and as one of the influential centers of a multipolar world, in development of equal and mutually advantageous relations with all countries and integrative associations and primarily with the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Russia's traditional partners, in universal observance of human rights and freedoms and the impermissibility of double standards in this respect.

Russia's national interests in the information sphere lie in observance of its citizens' constitutional rights and freedoms to receive and make use of information, in the development of modern telecommunication technologies, and in protecting the state's information resources from unsanctioned access.

Russia's national interests in the military sphere lie in protection of its independence, sovereignty and state and territorial integrity, in the prevention of military aggression against Russia and its allies and in ensuring the conditions for peaceful and democratic development of the state.

Russia's national interests in the border sphere lie in the establishment of political, legal, organizational and other conditions for ensuring reliable protection of the state border of the Russian Federation, and in observance of the procedure and rules laid down by Russian Federation legislation for the carrying on of economic and other activities within the border space of the Russian Federation.

Russia's national interests in the ecological sphere lie in the preservation and improvement of the environment.

A vital component of Russia's national interests is protection of the individual, society and the state from terrorism, including international terrorism, as well as from natural and man-made emergency situations and their consequences, and in times of war – from dangers arising from hostilities or as a consequence thereof.

III. Threats to the Russian Federation’s national security

The state of the economy, an imperfect system of government and civil society, the social and political polarization of Russian society and the criminalization of social relations, the growth of organized crime and increase in the scale of terrorism, the exacerbation of interethnic and aggravation of international relations all combine to create a broad spectrum of internal and external threats to the country's national security.

In the sphere of economy, these threats have a comprehensive character and are due primarily to a substantial contraction in the gross domestic product; a drop in investment and innovation activity; the dwindled scientific and technological potential; agricultural stagnation; the state of imbalance in the banking system; a rising external and internal national debt, and the tendency for the prevalence in export supplies of fuel, raw material and energy components, and in import supplies – of food and consumer items, including articles of prime necessity.

The weakening of the scientific, technical and technological potential of the country, curtailed research in strategically important areas of science and technology and the outflow of specialists and intellectual property abroad mean that Russia is faced with the threat of loss of its leading world positions, decay of its high-technology industries, increased dependence on foreign technology and the undermining of its defense capability.

The negative economic tendencies lie at the root of separatist aspirations by a number of constituent parts of the Russian Federation. This leads to increased political instability and a weakening of Russia's unified economic space and its major components – production, technological and transportation ties, and the banking and financial, credit and tax systems.

Economic disintegration, the social differentiation in society, and the depreciation of spiritual values promote tension in relations between regions and the center and represent a threat to the federal structure and the socioeconomic fabric of the Russian Federation.

Ethno-egoism, ethnocentrism and chauvinism as manifested in the activity of a number of public associations, and uncontrolled migration contribute to the growth of nationalism, political and religious extremism and ethno-separatism, and create a breeding ground for conflicts.

The country's unified legal space is being eroded by nonobservance of the principle of the primacy of the norms of the Russian Federation Constitution over other legal norms, and for that matter, federal legal norms over those of the constituent parts of the Russian Federation, and by insufficient fine tuning between different state administrative levels.

The threat of criminalization of social relations taking shape in the process of the reformation of the sociopolitical system and economic activity is becoming especially acute. Serious miscalculations made in the initial stages of economic, military, law-enforcement and other reform, weakened state regulation and control, an imperfect legal base, the absence of a strong state social policy, and a decline in society's spiritual and moral potential are the main factors aiding growth in crime, especially organized crime, and corruption.

The consequences of these miscalculations are manifest in weakened legislative supervision of the situation in the country; in the coalescence of certain elements of executive and legislative authority with criminal structures; and in their penetration into the sphere of management of the banking business, large enterprises, trade organizations, and commodity-distribution networks. In this connection the fight against organized crime and corruption is not only legal but also political in nature.

The scale of terrorism and organized crime is growing because of the conflicts that frequently accompany changes of ownership and due to the exacerbation of power struggles along group or ethno-nationalistic interest lines. The lack of an effective system of social prevention of law violations, inadequate legal and logistic support for activities to prevent terrorism and organized crime, legal nihilism and the outflow of qualified personnel from law-enforcement agencies are all increasing the degree of impact of this threat on the individual, society and the state.

The profound stratification of society into a narrow bunch of rich people and a preponderant mass of low-income citizens, the rise in the proportion of population living below poverty line, and growing unemployment pose a threat to Russia's national security in the social sphere.

A threat to the nation's physical health is the crisis in the systems of public health and social protection of the population and the rise in alcohol and drug consumption.

The consequences of this profound social crisis are a sharp drop in the birth rate and average life expectancy, the deformation of the demographic and social composition of society, a dwindling of the labor resources as the foundation for industrial development, a weakening of the fundamental cell of society, the family, and a lowering of the spiritual, moral and creative potential of the population.

A deepening crisis in the domestic political, social and spiritual spheres could lead to the loss of democratic gains.

The main threats in the international sphere are due to the following factors:

- the striving of particular states and intergovernmental associations to belittle the role of existing mechanisms for ensuring international security, above all the United Nations and the OSCE;

- the danger of a weakening of Russia's political, economic and military influence in the world;

- the strengthening of military-political blocs and alliances, above all NATO's eastward expansion;

- possible appearance of foreign military bases and large troop contingents in direct proximity to Russia’s borders;

- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery vehicles;

- a weakening of the integration processes in the Commonwealth of Independent States;

- outbreak and escalation of conflicts near the state border of the Russian Federation and the external borders of the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States;

- territorial claims against Russia.

Internationally, threats to Russian national security are manifested in attempts by other states to counteract its strengthening as one of the centers of influence in a multipolar world, to hinder realization of its national interests and to weaken its positions in Europe, the Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region.

Terrorism represents a serious threat to Russian national security. International terrorism has unleashed the overt campaign aimed at destabilizing the situation in Russia.

There is an increasing threat to national security in the information sphere. The striving of a number of countries to dominate the global information space and oust Russia from the external and internal information market poses a serious danger, as do the elaboration by a number of states of a concept of information wars that envisages creation of means of dangerous influence on the information spheres of other countries of the world; disruption of the normal functioning of information and telecommunication systems and of storage reliability for information resources; and gaining of unsanctioned access to them.

The level and scope of threats in the military sphere are growing.

Elevated to the rank of strategic doctrine, NATO's shift to the practice of using military force outside its zone of responsibility and without UN Security Council authorization is fraught with the danger of destabilizing the entire strategic situation in the world.

The growing technological edge of a number of leading powers and the buildup of their capabilities to develop new-generation weapons and military equipment create the prerequisites for a qualitatively new phase of the arms race and for a radical alteration of the forms and methods of warfare.

Foreign special services and the organizations they use are increasingly active on the territory of the Russian Federation.

Adding to the negative tendencies in the military domain is the protracted reform process in the Russian military organization and defense industrial complex, along with inadequate funding for national defense and the imperfections of the legal and regulatory base. This currently shows itself in the critically low level of operational and combat training in the Russian Armed Forces and in other forces, troop units and agencies, in the impermissible drop in the level of provision of modern weapons, military and special equipment for the troops (forces), in the extreme acuteness of social problems and leads to a weakening of the military security of the Russian Federation as a whole.

Threats to the national security and interests of the Russian Federation in the border sphere are due to the following causes:

- adjacent states’ economic, demographic and cultural-religious expansion into Russian territory;

- stepped-up activity by transfrontier organized crime as well as by foreign terrorist organizations.

The threat of a deteriorating environmental situation in the country and depletion of its natural resources hinges directly on the state of the economy and society's willingness to grasp the globality and importance of these issues. For Russia this threat is particularly great because of the preferential development of fuel and energy industries, the lack of development in legislative framework for environmental activities, the absence or limited use of resource conservation technologies, and low environmental awareness. There is a tendency for Russia to be used as a place for reprocessing and burying environmentally dangerous materials and substances.

In these circumstances, the erosion of state oversight and the insufficient effectiveness of the legal and economic mechanisms for averting and relieving emergencies are bound to increase the risk of man-made disasters in all sectors of economic activity.

IV. Ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation

Ensuring the Russian Federation's national security involves the following principal tasks:

- forecasting and identifying external and internal threats to national security in a timely manner;

- implementing operational and long-term measures for preventing and neutralizing internal and domestic threats;

- ensuring the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation and the security of its border space;

- developing the country’s economy and pursuing an independent and socially oriented economic policy;

- overcoming the scientific, technical and technological dependence of the Russian Federation on external sources;

- ensuring within Russia the personal security of individuals and citizens and their constitutional rights and freedoms;

- streamlining the system of state authority in the Russian Federation, federal relations, local self-government and the country’s laws, shaping harmonious interethnic relations, strengthening law and order and preserving the social and political stability of society;

- ensuring strict observance of the legislation of the Russian Federation by all citizens, officials, state bodies, political parties, and public and religious organizations;

- ensuring Russia’s equal and mutually advantageous cooperation primarily with leading states of the world;

- raising and maintaining the state’s military potential on a sufficiently high level;

- strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery vehicles;

- taking effective measures to detect, prevent and suppress espionage and subversive activities of foreign states, directed against the Russian Federation;

- radically improving the ecological situation in the country.

Ensuring national security and protecting the interests of Russia in the economic sphere are the priority thrusts of state policy.

The major objectives in foreign economic activity are:

- establishing favorable conditions for the international integration of the Russian economy;

- expanding the sales markets for Russian products;

- creating a single economic space with members of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

In conditions of the liberalization of Russian foreign trade and the toughening of competition in the world market of goods and services, protection of the interests of domestic commodity producers must be enhanced.

The pursuit of well- balanced financial and credit policies, aimed at gradually reducing Russia’s dependence on external credit borrowings and at consolidating its positions in international economic and financial organizations, takes on great significance.

It is necessary to enhance the role of the state in regulating the activities of foreign banking, insurance and investment companies and to introduce definite and justified restrictions on the transfer of exploitation of deposits of strategic natural resources, telecommunications, and transport and commodity-distribution networks to foreign companies.

Effective measures should be taken in the area of currency regulation and control in order to create conditions for the termination of settlements in foreign currency on the domestic market and prevention of the uncontrolled export of capital.

The main thrusts of national security assurance in the internal economic activities of the state are:

- legal support of reforms and the creation of an effective mechanism of control over the observance of the legislation of the Russian Federation;

- increasing government regulation of the economy;

- taking necessary measures to surmount the consequences of economic crisis, to preserve and develop scientific, technical, technological and industrial potential, to shift to economic growth with a reduced likelihood of man-made disasters, to improve the competitiveness of domestic industrial goods and to raise the well-being of the people.

The shift to a highly efficient and socially oriented market economy must occur via the gradual creation of optimal mechanisms of production organization and the distribution of goods and services with a view to the largest possible growth of the well-being of society and each citizen.

The tasks involving removal of structural deformations of the Russian economy, faster growth of science-intensive and highly processed goods production, support of industries that form the basis of extended reproduction, and employment assurance have moved to the fore.

Increasing government support of investment and innovation activity, taking measures to create a sustainable banking system that meets the interests of the real economy, facilitating enterprises’ access to long-term credits for the financing of capital investments, and providing real government support of purpose-oriented industrial restructuring programs are of substantial importance.

Ensuring faster development of competitive industries and enterprises and expanding the science-intensive goods market is a hugely important task. Its accomplishment calls for adopting measures to stimulate the transfer of new military technologies to civilian production and introducing a mechanism to identify and develop progressive technologies, the mastering of which will ensure the competitiveness of Russian enterprises in the world market.

Tackling the above tasks presupposes concentration of financial and material resources in priority areas of science and technology development; support for leading scientific schools; the accelerated formation of advanced developments and a national technological base; the attraction of private capital, including by the creation of funds and use of grants; the realization of development programs for areas having a high scientific and technical potential; the creation, with government support, of an infrastructure to ensure research commercialization with the simultaneous protection of intellectual property at home and abroad; and the development of a public network of scientific, technical and commercial information.

Government must assist the establishment of equal conditions for developing and increasing the competitiveness of enterprises under whatever form of ownership, including the rise and development of private business in all spheres where this contributes to the growth of public well-being, science and education progress, the spiritual and moral development of society and the protection of consumer rights.

Mechanisms to support the functioning and economic development of singular crisis Far Northern regions and areas, as well as a tariff policy to ensure the unified Russian economic space must be developed in the shortest possible time.

The priority of economic factors in the social sphere is crucial for strengthening the state, for the real government provision of social guarantees and for developing mechanisms of collective responsibility, democratic decision making and social partnership. In this case it is important to pursue a socially just and economically effective income distribution policy.

Organizing the work of the federal executive bodies and those of the subjects of the Russian Federation to implement concrete measures, aimed at preventing and overcoming the threats to the national interests of Russia in the field of economy, also requires further perfecting the legislation of the Russian Federation in the said field and ensuring its strict observance by all business entities.

Bringing the interests of the peoples inhabiting the country closer together, fostering their all-round cooperation and pursuing a responsible and well-balanced government policy toward the nationalities and regions will help ensure internal political stability in Russia. A comprehensive approach to tackling these tasks must form the basis of an internal public policy ensuring the development of the Russian Federation as a multinational democratic federative state.

The reinforcement of Russian statehood and the perfecting of federal relations and local self-government must help ensure the national security of the Russian Federation. There is a need for a comprehensive approach to dealing with legal, economic, social and ethno-political problems with the balanced observance of the interests of the Russian Federation and of its constituent parts.

The implementation of the constitutional principle of popular government calls for the coordinated functioning and interaction of all bodies of state authority, a rigid vertical hierarchy of executive power and the unity of the Russian judicial system. This is ensured by the constitutional principle of separation of powers, by the establishment of a more clear-cut functional distribution of authorities between state institutions and by the strengthening of the federal arrangement of Russia through the improvement of its relations with the constituent parts of the Russian Federation within the framework of their constitutional status.

The basic guidelines for protection of the constitutional system in Russia are:

- ensuring the priority of federal legislation and streamlining the legislation of the constituent parts of the Russian Federation on this basis;

- developing the organizational and legal mechanisms to protect state integrity and ensuring the unity of the legal space and national interests of Russia;

- crafting and implementing a regional policy that will allow federal and regional interests to be optimally balanced;

- streamlining the mechanism that prevents the creation and suppresses the activities of political parties and public associations pursuing separatist and anti-constitutional aims.

The consolidation of efforts must be called on to fight crime and corruption. Russia is extremely interested in eradicating the economic, social and political base of these socially dangerous phenomena and in working out a comprehensive system of measures to effectively protect the individual, society and the state against criminal encroachments.

The formation of a system of measures for effective social prophylaxis and the education of law-abiding citizens is of primary importance. These measures must be aimed at protecting the rights and freedoms, morality, health and property of each individual without regard to race, nationality, language, origin, property or official status, residence, religion or belief, affiliation with public associations and other circumstances.

The major tasks in anti-crime effort are:

- identifying, removing and preventing the causes and conditions giving rise to crime;

- enhancing the role of the state as a guarantor of the security of the individual and society and creating a necessary legal base for that, along with an enforcement mechanism;

- reinforcing the system of law enforcement bodies, primarily units that counter organized crime and terrorism, and establishing conditions for their effective activity;

- enlisting government bodies within their scope of authority in activities for preventing unlawful acts;

- expanding mutually advantageous international cooperation in the law enforcement sphere, primarily with the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Anti-crime decisions and measures taken by bodies of state authority must be overt, concrete and understandable to each citizen, bear a preemptive character, ensure equality before the law for all and the inevitability of punishment and rely upon the support of society.

In order to prevent and combat crime, it is first necessary to develop the legal base as the foundation of reliable protection of the rights and lawful interests of citizens and to observe the international legal obligations of the Russian Federation in the fields of anti-crime action and human rights observance. It is important to deprive crime of a breeding ground provided by legislation drawbacks and crisis in the economy and the social sphere.

For the purpose of preventing corruption and eliminating the conditions for legalizing illegal capital it is necessary to create an effective system of financial control, to improve the measures of administrative, civil and criminal-law influence and to perfect the mechanism of checks on the property status and sources of income of officials and employees of organizations and institutions under whatever form of ownership, as well as on correspondence between their expenditures and these incomes.

Terrorism, the drug business and contraband must be fought on the basis of a nationwide complex of countermeasures to suppress these kinds of criminal activity..

Based on international agreements, it is necessary to effectively cooperate with foreign states, their law-enforcement bodies and special services and with international organizations tasked with combating terrorism. It is also necessary to draw more widely on the international experience in fighting this phenomenon, to establish a coordinated mechanism for countering international terrorism and to reliably shut off all possible channels of illicit trade in arms and explosives within the country and of their inflow from abroad.

Federal bodies of state authority must prosecute within the country persons involved in terrorist activities regardless of where the terrorist actions inflicting harm upon the Russian Federation were planned or carried out.

Ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation also includes protection of the cultural, spiritual and moral legacy, historical traditions and the norms of social life, the preservation of the cultural wealth of all the peoples of Russia, the formation of government policy in the field of the spiritual and moral education of the population, and the imposition of a ban on use of air time in electronic mass media for distribution of programs propagandizing violence and exploiting low instincts, along with counteraction against the negative influence of foreign religious organizations and missionaries.

The spiritual renewal of society is impossible without the preservation of the role of the Russian language as a factor of the spiritual unity of the peoples of multinational Russia and as the language of interstate communication between the peoples of the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

In order to ensure the preservation and development of our cultural and spiritual legacy, it is necessary to establish economic and social conditions for the creative activity and functioning of cultural establishments.

In the field of citizens health protection and improvement, the heightened attention of society and the bodies of state authority of the Russian Federation to the development of state (federal and municipal) and private medical services is called for, along with government protectionism in domestic medical and pharmaceutical industries and implementation of federal programs in the fields of sanitation and epidemiology, the protection of children’s health, urgent and emergency medical aid, and disaster medicine.

Among the priority areas of government environmental activity are:

- rational utilization of natural resources and the inculcation of an ecological culture among the population;

- preventing environment pollution by increasing the degree of safety of the technologies connected with the burial and utilization of toxic industrial and domestic wastes;

- preventing radioactive pollution of the environment and minimizing the consequences of previous radiation accidents and disasters;

- the ecologically safe burial and utilization of decommissioned arms, primarily atomic submarines, nuclear-powered ships and vessels, nuclear ammunition, liquid rocket fuel, and atomic power plant fuel;

- the environmentally safe and non-hazardous storage and destruction of chemical weapon stocks;

- development and introduction of safe production technologies, a search for methods of practical use of ecologically clean energy sources and the adoption of urgent environmental protection measures in ecologically dangerous regions of the Russian Federation.

A new approach to the organization and conduct of civil defense on the territory of the Russian Federation is requisite, along with the qualitative improvement of the unified state system of disaster warning and relief, including its further integration with similar systems of foreign states.

The foreign policy of the Russian Federation must be aimed at:

- pursuing a vigorous foreign policy course;

- strengthening the key mechanisms of multilateral governance of world political and economic processes, primarily under the aegis of the UN Security Council;

- providing favorable conditions for economic and social development of the country and for preserving global and regional stability;

- protecting the lawful rights and interests of Russian citizens abroad, particularly with the use of political, economic and other measures for these purposes;

- developing relations with the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States according to the principles of international law and developing integration processes within the Commonwealth of Independent States that meet the interests of Russia;

- the full-fledged participation of Russia in global and regional economic and political entities;

- facilitating conflict resolution, including peacekeeping activities under the aegis of the UN and other international organizations;

- achieving progress in nuclear arms control, and maintaining strategic stability in the world on the basis of states’ compliance with their international obligations in this sphere;

- fulfilling mutual obligations in the area of reduction and elimination of mass destruction weapons and conventional arms, carrying out confidence and stability building measures, and ensuring international control over the export of military and dual-purpose goods and technologies and over the rending of this kind of services;

- adapting the existing arms control and disarmament agreements to the new conditions of international relations, and developing where necessary new agreements, primarily on confidence and security building measures;

- promoting the establishment of zones free of weapons of mass destruction;

- developing international cooperation in the field of combating transnational crime and terrorism.

Ensuring the military security of the Russian Federation is a major thrust area of the state. The chief objective in this field is to provide the capability to respond adequately to any threats that may arise in the 21st century, with rational expenditures on national defense.

In the prevention of wars and armed conflicts the Russian Federation gives preference to political, diplomatic, economic, and other nonmilitary means. But the national interests of the Russian Federation require sufficient military power for its defense. The Russian Armed Forces play the chief role in ensuring the military security of the Russian Federation.

It is one of the major tasks of the Russian Federation to exercise deterrence in the interest of preventing aggression on any scale, nuclear or otherwise against Russia and its allies.

The Russian Federation must possess nuclear forces capable of assuredly inflicting the desired extent of damage against any aggressor state or coalition of states in any conditions and circumstances.

The Russian Armed Forces in their peacetime fighting strength must be capable to reliably protect the country against air attack and accomplish jointly with other forces, troop units and agencies the tasks in repulsing aggression in a local war (armed conflict) as well as to deploy strategically to perform missions in a large-scale war. The Armed Forces must enable the Russian Federation to engage in peacekeeping activities.

One of the major strategic thrusts in ensuring the military security of the Russian Federation is effective coordination and cooperation with the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The interests of ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation predetermine necessity of a Russian military presence in certain strategically important regions of the world in appropriate circumstances. Deploying limited troop contingents (military bases, Navy forces) in them on a treaty or international legal basis, as also on the principles of partnership must ensure the readiness of Russia to fulfill its obligations, contribute to shaping a sustainable military-strategic balance of forces in the regions, allow for the Russian Federation’s response to a crisis situation at its initial stage, as well as facilitate carrying out the foreign policy aims of the state.

The Russian Federation considers the possibility of using military force to ensure its national security based on the following principles:

- employing all the manpower and resources, including nuclear weapons, in its possession in the event of need to repulse armed aggression, if all other measures of resolving the crisis situation have been exhausted or proven ineffective;

- use of military force within the country would be possible in strict conformity with the Russian Federation Constitution and federal laws in such contingencies as a threat to the life of citizens or territorial integrity of the country or the menace of a forcible change of the constitutional system.

An important role in securing the national interests of Russia belongs to the defense industrial complex. Restructuring and conversion of the defense industrial complex must be accomplished without detriment to the development of new technologies and scientific-technical capabilities, the modernization of weapons, military and special equipment and the strengthening of the positions of Russian producers in the world arms market.

There is a need to create all requisite conditions for organizing priority fundamental, projected, and exploratory research leading to promising and advanced developments in the defense and security interests of the state.

The major tasks of the Russian Federation in the border sphere are:

- establishing a necessary legal and regulatory base;

- promoting the related interstate cooperation;

- countering economic, demographic and cultural-religious expansion into the territory of Russia by other states;

- suppressing the activities of transnational organized crime, and illegal migration;

- carrying out collective measures to ensure the security of the border space of the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The major tasks in ensuring the information security of the Russian Federation are:

- realization of the constitutional rights and freedoms of the citizens of the Russian Federation in the sphere of information activities;

- improvement and protection of the national information infrastructure and the integration of Russia into the world information space;

- counteraction against the threat of rivalry in the information sphere.

Effective use and all-round development of intelligence and counterintelligence capabilities with a view to the timely detection of threats and determination of their sources has a special significance for ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation.

The national security system of the Russian Federation is created and developed in accordance with the Constitution, federal laws, Presidential decrees and orders, Government resolutions and orders, and federal programs in this field.

At the heart of the national security system of the Russian Federation are the agencies, manpower and resources involved in national security arrangements that carry out measures of a political, legal, organizational, economic, military and other nature, aimed at ensuring the security of the individual, society and the state.

The powers of Russian national security agencies and forces, their composition, and principles and rules of action are defined by appropriate legislative acts of the Russian Federation.

Those taking part in shaping and pursuing the national security policy of the Russian Federation are:

the President of the Russian Federation, who directs within his Constitutional remit the national security agencies and forces of the Russian Federation; authorizes national security actions; in accordance with Russian Federation legislation forms, reorganizes and abolishes national security agencies and forces subordinate to him; issues messages, appeals and directives on national security issues; in his annual addresses to the Federal Assembly specifies individual provisions of the National Security Concept of the Russian Federation, and determines guidelines for current domestic and foreign policy of the country;

the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation – based on the Russian Federation Constitution and upon submission from the President or Government, it forms a legislative base in the field of ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation;

the Government of the Russian Federation – within its scope of authority and with regard for the national security priorities articulated in the President’s annual addresses to the Federal Assembly, it coordinates the activities of federal executive bodies and those of the constituent parts of the Russian Federation, and shapes in a prescribed manner the federal budget items for implementing concrete goal-oriented programs in this field;

the Security Council of the Russian Federation: conducts work on the preemptive identification and assessment of threats to the national security of the Russian Federation, operationally prepares for the President draft decisions on their prevention, works out proposals for national security arrangements, and proposals to specify individual National Security Concept provisions, coordinates the activities of national security forces and agencies, and oversees implementation by federal executive bodies and those of the constituent parts of the Russian Federation of the decisions made in this field;

the federal executive bodies: see to it that Russian Federation legislation and the decisions by the President and Government of the Russian Federation with respect to national security are complied with; within their remit, develop normative legal acts in this field and submit them to the President and Government of the Russian Federation;

the executive bodies of the constituent parts of the Russian Federation: interact with federal executive bodies on the issues of compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and with the decisions of the Russian Federation President and Government relating to national security, as well as with federal programs, plans and directives issued by the Supreme Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces with respect to the Federation’s military security; carry out measures in conjunction with bodies of local self-government to engage citizens, public associations and organizations in helping solve national security problems according to Russian Federation legislation; and submit to federal executive bodies their proposals for streamlining the national security system of the Russian Federation.

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It is the firm and resolute intention of the Russian Federation to sustain its national security. The democratic legal institutions that have been created, the established structure of bodies of state authority and broad participation by political parties and public associations in implementing the National Security Concept are a guarantee for the dynamic development of Russia in the 21st century.